Overview of Network Technology in Ethical Hacking With Examples
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Introduction to Networks
Network: Interconnection of two or more devices with each other for a common purpose i.e sharing which can be peripheral devices or can either be any information.
Intranet:Private Network into LAN
Extra-net:Private Network into WAN more than two LAN
How you get connected to the network ??
NIC=Network Interface Card
Network Topologies (Arrangement)
o Bus Topology : single transmission channel
o Star Topology : one central node
o Ring Topology : Forming a ring structure with no central dependency
o Mesh Topology : Every node is connected to every other node present in a network
o Hybrid Topology : Mixture of the above topologies.
- Network Protocols (Some Set of Rules is Called Protocol) And Which Protocol Comes In Networking are network protocol )
o IP : The Internet Protocol (IP) is the method or protocol by which data is sent from one computer to another on the Internet.
o HTTP (Hyper Text Transfer Protocol ) : Protocol defines how messages are formatted and transmitted, it is the foundation of any data exchange in WWW (80).
o FTP: To transfer files over the network.
(In intranet accessed ftp://ip ) 
SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer protocol): To transfer mail properly 25,366
VoIP : Voice over Internet Protocol is a category of hardware and software that enables people to use the Internet as the transmission medium for telephone calls by sending voice data in packets using IP (5060 and 5061)
DHCP : Automatic assignment of IP
(dynamic host configuration protocol)
TCP : handshaking , connection-oriented, reliable, slow
Transmission control Protocol: examples:
o UDP (USER DATA GRAM PROTOCOL): no handshake, connection less, not reliable, fast, video streaming
There are two types of address :
Virtual address : your IP address which might change From place to place
Physical address : Which will remain constant throughout like your MAC address.
o Types of IP
▪ Internal | Private | Local
▪ External | Public | Global
Diferenece Between (IPV4 VS IPV6)
- IPv4 uses a 32-bit address scheme allowing for a total of 2^32 addresses (just over 4 billion addresses)
- IPv6 addresses are 128-bit IP address written in hexadecimal and separated by colons. (jio users)
- 00000000.00000000.00000000.00000000 = 32 bit
2^2 2^1 2^0
0 0 0 0 000
1 0 0 1 001
2 0 1 0 010
3 0 1 1 011
4 1 0 0 100
5 1 0 1 101
6 1 1 0 110
7 1 1 1 111
192 = 11000000
168 = 10101000
128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1
192= 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
168= 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0
What is Subnetting and How to Use in Ethical Hacking Course
IP Classes in decimal notation
Class A addresses range from 1-127 — 255.0.0.0 (But 127.0.0.1 Is Reserved For LoopBack Address it is local address Okey )
Class B addresses range from 128-191
Class C addresses range from 192-223
Class D addresses range from 224-239
Class E addresses range from 240-254
127.0.0.1–> loopback address
00000000.00000000.00000000.00000000 — 11111111.11111111.11111111.11111111
0.0.0.0 — 255.255.255.255
Class A: 255.0.0.0 (2^N-2) HOSTS
Class B: 255.255.0.0
Class C: 255.255.255.0
172.16.0.1 – 172.16.0.255 —-> ip for CS
172.16.1.0 – 172.16.1.255 —-> ip for EC
NAT – Network Address Translation
This is a function which converts my Public IP Address to my Private IP Address and vice versa.
What is PORTS in Network Technology
A port is an endpoint of communication in an operating system. In the computer networking system a computer or a program connects and run the services on the Internet via a port. They are the gateways through which we access any service of any system.
There are 2 Types of Ports Basically-
1. Hardware or Physical Ports – The ports which helps to connect the hardware components to our computer.These are the ports which are tangible and we can see and use the into a particular system. For eg. USB Port, HDMI, VGA Port.
2. Virtual or Logical Ports – These are those ports which are not tangible and used to run a service in a Computer Networking System. For every service or protocol there is a unique port number assigned to it which helps in processing it. SO these are the ports which are virtually located in a system or a machine to access some services of the system but is not visible and virtually located.
There are a total of 65,535 Ports in a particular system.
Categories of Virtual and Logical Ports
1. Well Known and Pre-Defined Ports – These are those which are used for all the well known and Services like which are used all over the globe.
Eg. – HTTP – Hyper Text Transfer Protocol – 80
HTTPS – HTTP Secure Socket Layer – 443
SMTP – Simple Mail Transfer Protocol – 25
FTP – File Transfer Protocol – 21
2. Registered Ports – These ports are those which are basically used by software organizations to run there services.
For eg . Mysql – 3306
Team Viewer – 1609
3. Dynamic or Standalone Ports – These ports are those which are used by anyone for there personal purposes.
For eg . 48,897
Range Of Ports
Well Known Ports – 0-1023
Registered Ports – 1024 – 41,951
Dynamic Ports – 41,952-65,535
What is DNS Understanding in Cyber Security
THE COMPUTER ONLY UNDERSTANDS THE LANGUAGE OF NUMBERS.
CHROME – “WWW.FACEBOOK.COM”
Language – Binaries – 0&1
Domain Name System is a Technology which converts a Domain Name into IP Address or a Number and Vice Versa.
Because it is difficult to learn a IP Address for a website for a layman. for eg. learning “247.116.25.195” for “www.google.com” .
“Ping” – “ping www.google.com”
What is PROXIES AND VPN in Ethical Hacking
PROXY / PROXY SERVERS
Proxy are the Dummy Servers which helps us by allocating an IP Address of themselves to us which is for temporary basis.
It acts as a middle man between DNS server and client accessing it.
They allocate a IP Address of any location, and give us the permission to access the web service which is blocked.
To find out the location of a Global IP – “ip2location.com”
Proxies are of 3 Types
1. Web Based Proxy or Proxy Servers – These are the Websites which are acting as a Proxy Server and allows to act as a intermediator between client and server.
For eg. – kproxy.com
ninja proxy etc.
2. Web Extension Based Proxy – These are the Proxy Servers Client Agents which are enabled in our browser and helps to as behaving like a proxy dummy server.
For eg. Anonymox, Hola Proxy Extension , Zen-mate etc.
VPN – VIRTUAL PRIVATE NETWORK
Virtual Private Network is more advanced technology which allows authorized clients to access the Virtually Created Network which will be safe and set the anonymity of a person. They are most advanced then proxies and basically a new virtual network created by organizations or anyone for there personal usage.
They are only can be accessed by authorized people only usually in corporate for accessing there confidential resources..
More Functionalities that Proxies:
= Tunneling of data – So that there can be a secret passage which will not be known to anyone.
= Encryption of Data- It encrypts or make the data in the unreadable format. Sairam “Hello Karan Singhania -> 13453267gsds”
= It gives you better functionalities of networking.
= Authorization and Authentication – Only authorized people can access it.
Eg. PROXPN, VPNBOOK.COM , free of cost
Standardization Followed for communication into a Particular Network
OSI REFERENCE MODEL
1. Physical Layer – Wired / Wireless, Bitwise conversion of data
2. Data Link Layer- MAC Addressing
3. Networking Layer – Logical Addressing and IP Fragmentation
4. Transport Layer – Define the Port Addressing and Routing Architecture
5. Session Layer – Existence of a particular Session created by the Application.
6. Presentation Layer – Bit Conversion and Fragmentation of data packets
7. Application Layer – GUI of any application -Whatsapp, Google, Facebook. etc.
Shortcut For Remember OSI Model By Hacker:- Please Do Not Through Sabji Paratha Aallu.
1. Physical Layer / Network INterface = Physical + Data Link Layer
2. Network Layer / INternet Layer
3. TRansport Layer
4. Application Layer = Session + Presentation + Application Layer
WEB TECHNOLOGY BASICS
1. Web Hosting Space – ICANN – GoDaddy, Bigrock etc.
2. Domain Name – .com/.in/.net
3. Database – Where all the data get stored in a server
4. Server Type – Windows based servers, Linux Servers
5. Clients and Server Architecture
6. Web Technologies – HTML , PHP , JSP , ASP etc.
HTTP 80 HTTPS=43
SMTP 25 545
DHCP 67 (SERVER) , 68 (CLIENT)
1.SMTP (Simple mail Transfer Protocol) – send email
Secure port= 465 (encrypted)
2. POP3 (Post Office Protocol version 3)
3..IMAP(Internet Message Access Protocol)